Heat & Control

Unit Operations in Food Processing

This book by Richard and Mary Earle is available free online via http://bit.ly/FBRDH11 (the full url is http://www.nzifst.org.nz/unitoperations/index.htm ).
This free web edition of a well-known textbook is published online by The New Zealand Institute of Food Science and Technology. It can unfortunately not be downloaded in a single file but each chapter can be downloaded to read off-line. The book is designed "to give food technologists an understanding of the engineering principles involved in the processing of food products" so that they can understand how processing equipment operates. An understanding of the basic principles of process engineering also assists in designing and modifying processes and in communicating with design engineers, equipment suppliers and other technical specialists. Heat & Control
A unit operations approach is used to present the information. The unit operations covered are: fluid flow, heat transfer, drying, evaporation, contact equilibrium processes (distillation, extraction, gas absorption, crystallisation, etc), mechanical separations (filtration, centrifugation, sedimentation and sieving), size reduction, and mixing. These unit operations are the "building blocks" of any food processing (and in fact apply to any processing industry). The unit operations are in turn dependent on the conservation of mass and energy which are covered in the discussion of mass and energy balances in the first chapter. Each unit operation is covered in a chapter which describes the theory and principles with many examples. Equipment is described in principle with simple diagrams but no link is made to suppliers.  The coverage is comprehensive including a range of processes ranging from gas adsorption, distillation and membrane technology to centrifugal pumping, spray-drying and canning. The coverage is in-depth, with fundamental laws and detailed calculations presented. Equipment and processes are presented with data on performance and operating conditions. This gives the user a good view of how the equipment operates and what performance can be expected. It is well illustrated with simple line drawings. The appendices present physical properties of materials as well as a psychrometric and pressure/enthalpy chart for refrigerant. They define sieve sizes and present the thermal properties (specific heats above and below freezing and latent heat of evaporation) for some foods, as well as methods of estimating these for other foods. They contain 15 references from the text and a bibliography of around 35 books, but only a few links to organisations and the authors’ other books.